What are Biodiversity Net Gain (BNG) regulations?

Biodiversity net gain

In sustainability management, Biodiversity Net Gain (BNG) has emerged as a critical strategy for integrating ecological health with developmental progress. BNG represents a proactive approach to ensure that developments not only mitigate their impact on the natural world but actively enhance it. Keep reading as we dive into BNG and why it should be integrated into development practices to foster sustainable growth and resilience in our ecosystems.

What is Biodiversity Net Gain (BNG)? 

Biodiversity Net Gain (BNG) is a strategy embedded in the UK Environment Act that enhances a site’s biodiversity by creating or improving habitats in development projects. Essentially, developments must not only mitigate harm but actively improve biodiversity, supporting wildlife resilience and adaptation to climate change. The outcome of applying BNG is a site with a demonstrably positive ecological impact.

The evolution of Biodiversity Net Gain legislation

The concept of Biodiversity Net Gain (BNG) has significantly evolved over recent decades, becoming a key element in global environmental and sustainability policies. Since the late 1990s, there has been a shift towards more quantitative methods in biodiversity management, with the development of tools and frameworks to rigorously assess impacts and quantify necessary offsets. The idea of “no net loss” of biodiversity emerged, exemplified by wetland banking in the United States.

In the 2010s, BNG principles were integrated into national policies across various countries. The UK notably advanced these efforts with the Natural Environment White Paper in 2011, leading to the Environment Act 2021, which mandated BNG for all developments in England. Similarly, regions like New South Wales and Victoria in Australia have implemented policies requiring developers to demonstrate measurable biodiversity gains for project approval. The EU’s 2030 biodiversity strategy also aligns with BNG by setting binding nature restoration targets.

Why is Biodiversity Net Gain important?

Biodiversity Net Gain (BNG) is crucial for several reasons. Primarily, it promotes nature recovery by enhancing or creating habitats that help species thrive and adapt to climate change. This contributes significantly to human health and well-being by increasing access to green spaces that are vital for mental and physical health.

Additionally, BNG supports the development of nature-based solutions and green infrastructure, enhancing the resilience of cities, towns, and coasts to climate change. This is essential for meeting government and corporate net zero targets by mitigating climate change effects, such as through woodland creation, which removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

BNG also bolsters community resilience against extreme weather by establishing robust blue and green infrastructures like rivers, woodlands, and parks. Moreover, it enhances neighbourhoods, making them more desirable places to live, work, and conduct business. Finally, BNG generates long-term income and employment opportunities through investments in habitat management and maintenance.

Challenges of Biodiversity Net Gain

Biodiversity Net Gain (BNG) policies, while transformative and potentially beneficial for ecological conservation, face several key challenges that can impact their effectiveness and feasibility. 

Measurement and quantification

Biodiversity encompasses a variety of species, habitats, and ecological processes, making it difficult to measure and quantify accurately. Defining and quantifying what constitutes a ‘net gain’ can be problematic, especially when dealing with complex ecosystems.

Ecological baselines

Determining the original state of biodiversity in an area can be challenging, particularly if historical data is lacking or if the area has already been degraded.

Additionality and permanence

It must be demonstrated that the biodiversity gains would not have occurred without the specific intervention, which can be difficult to prove.

Temporal and spatial issues

There can be significant delays between the loss of biodiversity due to development and the realisation of gains from offsetting measures. During this lag, ecosystem services can be significantly impaired.

Regulatory and compliance challenges

Implementing effective regulatory frameworks that can enforce BNG requirements is challenging. There is also the risk of regulatory capture or inadequate enforcement due to limited resources.

Economic and financial issues

Implementing BNG can be costly, especially for large-scale projects or in highly sensitive ecological areas. The financial burden can be prohibitive for some developers, potentially leading to non-compliance or attempts to seek exemptions.

Social and ethical concerns

Local communities may be adversely affected by BNG projects, especially if these projects restrict access to natural resources or land that communities depend on.

How BNG is calculated 

Biodiversity Net Gain (BNG) is calculated by assessing the impact of a development project on biodiversity and ensuring that the post-development state results in a quantifiable improvement over the pre-development baseline. There are lots of tools and frameworks available online to guide developers in measuring BNG, including Biodiversity Net Gain calculators. 


Biodiversity Net Gain (BNG) represents a pivotal shift in how development projects are aligned with ecological sustainability goals. By mandating improvements to biodiversity post-development, BNG not only counteracts the environmental impacts of urban expansion but actively contributes to ecological enhancement and resilience. As we continue to evolve our approach to sustainable development, BNG stands out as a crucial mechanism for fostering an environmentally responsible future, proving that development and ecological health can go hand in hand. 

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