How biodiversity loss impacts global supply chains and business operations

Biodiversity loss

Biodiversity is the foundation upon which ecosystems operate and is critical for maintaining the natural balance that supports all life. Its intrinsic value is immense, but beyond this, biodiversity is a cornerstone of ecosystem services that are pivotal to the global economy. Biodiversity supports key industries spanning agriculture, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, tourism, and more. 

Ongoing biodiversity loss is presenting serious risks to ecosystem resilience, economic stability, and supply chain continuity, illustrating the dire need for it to become a focal point in any corporate sustainability strategy. Below, we explore the significance of biodiversity and how it impacts global supply chains and business operations. 

What is biodiversity loss?

Biodiversity loss refers to the loss of life on earth at various levels. It ranges from reductions in genetic diversity to the collapse of entire ecosystems. Moreover to its intrinsic value, biodiversity underpins ecosystem services, offering the backbone of the global economy. 

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has estimated the economic value of ecosystem services to be around €2.6 billion. However, the rate of biodiversity loss and habitat degradation is accelerating around the world. The primary causes of biodiversity loss include changes in land use, pollution, climate change, and invasive alien species.

How biodiversity loss affects supply chains and business operations

Biodiversity loss significantly impacts global supply chains and business operations, affecting resilience, cost efficiency, and sustainability. Biodiversity supports a broad spectrum of raw materials essential for industries like agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and construction. Declining species can lead to shortages and increased costs, as seen with essential plant-based ingredients for pharmaceuticals or cosmetics.

Agriculture depends on biodiversity for ecosystem services such as pollination, water purification, and soil fertility. A reduction in bee populations, for example, can decrease crop yields, affecting supply chains for fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Additionally, when natural ecosystem services falter, businesses may incur higher costs. This is because they have to substitute these with artificial solutions. 

Consumer and investor environmental awareness also pressures companies to adopt sustainable practices. Negative impacts on biodiversity can damage a company’s reputation, leading to potential boycotts or divestments. Moreover, biodiversity loss creates ecosystem instability. This complicates supply chain management with unpredictable shortages or surpluses of resources, ultimately challenging the planning and reliability of supply chains.

How to prevent biodiversity loss: 5 strategies for enhancing resilience

To reduce the impact of biodiversity loss on supply chains and enhance business resilience, companies can adopt various proactive strategies. These measures not only mitigate risks but also contribute positively to the ecosystems they depend on. Below are some effective strategies to build sustainable supply chains and incorporate sustainable business operations. 

1. Sustainable sourcing practices

Implementing sustainable sourcing policies is crucial. This involves selecting suppliers who prioritise biodiversity through sustainable agricultural or production practices, such as organic farming, sustainable forestry, and responsible fishing. Companies can establish criteria that suppliers must meet regarding biodiversity conservation and monitor compliance through regular audits and assessments.

2. Enhancing supplier diversity

Diversifying suppliers and sourcing locations can reduce dependency on a single ecosystem or region, which may be vulnerable to biodiversity loss. This approach spreads the risk and minimises disruptions by ensuring alternative sources if one supply chain faces ecological challenges.

3. Investing in regenerative practices

Businesses can invest in or partner with initiatives that promote regenerative practices. These practices not only reduce impact but actively improve biodiversity. For agriculture, this might mean techniques that restore soil health, increase pollinator habitats, and enhance local biodiversity, which can lead to more resilient crop systems.

4. Ecosystem restoration projects

Engaging in or sponsoring ecosystem conservation projects such as reforestation, wetland restoration, and coral reef restoration can help mitigate the effects of biodiversity loss. These projects can be part of a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy that directly contributes to ecosystem resilience.

5. Adopting circular economy principles

Implementing circular economy principles reduces waste, promotes recycling, and minimises the extraction of natural resources. This lessens the strain on biodiversity and involves designing products for longevity, reusing materials, and facilitating recycling. 


As species and ecosystems continue to decline, the essential services they provide are diminishing, leading to significant disruptions in supply chains and increased operational costs. To combat these challenges, businesses must adopt proactive strategies that support biodiversity conservation. By implementing these strategies, companies can help safeguard biodiversity. 

Moreover, these strategies enhance corporate resilience, protect against supply chain volatility, and align business practices with growing consumer and investor expectations for environmental action. Ultimately, addressing the loss of biodiversity is not just about protecting nature; it’s about securing a sustainable future for businesses and societies worldwide.

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